Archive May, 2013

Occipital lymph node

28 May, 08:50, by admin

Occipital lymph node glands, or nodes, as they are called do total three in number. All three of these nodes do make up the lymphatic system, and the lymphatic system is what works exclusively, as the main immune system for the human body. Working all together, these systems do fight very hard up against any micro-organisms, that do promote the presence of diseases. These micro-organisms can include bacteria, viruses, and the like in description. Everything from an organ perspective is included under the protection of the occiptal lymph nodes system, all except for the central nervous system, which is not included at all.

The lymphatic system itself is made up of lymphatic capillaries, also ducts, nodes, and the organs of the body such as the spleen, the tonsils, the list goes on. Each individual lymph node is bean-shaped in appearance and are most prominent in certain areas of the human body. Some of these areas do include the armpits region, the back of a person’s head, the neck, behind one’s ears, beneath the jaw and chin, and in the groin area. the lymph nodes fight hard up against infections with the help of a thing called lymphocytes, and it is these lymphocytes, which do a lot of the fighting themselves. Lymphocytes are a kind of white blood cell and they are disease/infection fighting agents.

Lymph, itself, can be described best as being a clear-colored fluid in description. This fluid is something that seeps from the blood vessels, from cells, and it is something that does collect in between the crevices and spaces that are located in between body cells mainly. It is usually collected by the lymph capillaries, and it is distributed by other ducts and vessels, where it is then passed along to the lymph nodes where lymphocytes are armed and ready to do battle with any micro-organisms that are contained within the fluid base material. This filtered lymph then does travel its ways down to the lymphatic system, where it eventually goes into the blood circulatory system in the end.

Valtrex for cold sores

23 May, 10:15, by admin

Also known as fever blisters, cold sores are the result of a viral infection with HSV1 (herpes simplex Type 1). The blisters typically appear on one’s lips and are small lesions filled with fluid. For those who have previously experienced cold sores in the past, the sign of a new outbreak is a tingling sensation in a particular spot a day or two before the blister actually appears. These symptoms can last for anything from ten days to a fortnight.

The bad news is that once the cold sore virus has entered the body, it will remain there for the rest of the person’s life. When triggered — for example by reduced immunity — it will reactivate, causing another outbreak of cold sores. This means that cold sores have no permanent cure. Fortunately, they usually don’t need to be treated medically as they will heal on their own within around two weeks. The symptoms are unpleasant, however; to shorten their duration you can treat them with topical or oral medications. One of the best-known topical treatments is Valacyclovair, generally referred to by its brand name: Valtrex.

How Valtrex Relieves Cold Sore Symptoms

To reiterate: the herpes virus never entirely leaves a person’s system once infection has occurred. After the initial infection, however, it may remain inactive and dormant for a number of years, only causing symptoms when an outbreak is triggered. Valtrex works by inhibiting the virus from multiplying inside the body. This helps to reduce the total number of outbreaks and also means that symptoms are less severe.

Using Valtrex for Other Conditions

Valtrex can be used as a treatment for genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles and to reduce the likelihood that herpes will spread between sexual partners.

How Much to Take

The appropriate dosage will depend on a number of factors, including any medications that the patient is already taking and the person’s age. Other factors are underlying health conditions and how much the person weighs. In the case of cold sores, a typical recommended dosage will be around 2000 milligrams. This dose needs to be taken twice for a single day. The doses must be taken twelve hours apart. This applies only to adults and children over the age of twelve. Lately, generic forms of Valtrex have started to become available. Valtrex and its generic versions are available in two strengths: 500 milligrams and 1000 milligrams.

Additional Effects

Like most other effective medications, Valtrex has some side effects. Most people, however, are able to tolerate these reasonably well. The list of known side effects can include:

  •  Headaches, which are very common and occur in most patients.
  •  Nausea, which is slightly less prevalent but still very common.
  • Abdominal pain is also possibility.
  • Depression is uncommon but does occur.
  • Approximately eight per cent of women who use Valtrex report painful menstruation.
  • Among the less commonly reported symptoms are dizzy flashes, increased liver enzyme levels and pain in the joints.

Cutaneous membrane

15 May, 21:36, by admin

Whenever a person experiences a pinching sensation on their hand, they immediately think it is the skin that is being hurt or damaged. It isn’t often that we consider what it is that lies just beneath the skin, or what science has defined as what the skin is. For those who are curious and eager to learn more about our skin, we have compiled some basic insights to give an overall view of it.

The skin goes by another name in science called the cutaneous membrane. This soft overlay of skin is what protects the organs underneath. This term is extracted from two words. The word ‘cutaneous’ means ‘of the skin’. The word ‘membrane’ refers to the thin layer which covers a space, cavity, or organ. Another name for this is integument membrane. It is a membrane that is part of the group referred to as stratified squamous epithelium.
We know the scientific name for skin is the cutaneous membrane, but our skin is so much more than the membrane that covers the body. Following are some facts regarding the cutaneous membrane.

While the outer part of our skin may look quite simple in nature, just below it are complex layers. These layers are what carries out those major function in our body. There are two main layers to the cutaneous membrane; the epidermis and the dermis.

Epidermis: The outer layer of our skin is called the epidermis. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells are what makes up this layer. This layer has no blood cells. It contains 5 layers of tissue forming cells and 4 different types of cells. These four cells that the epidermis is made of are; Melanocytes, Merkel, Keratinocytes, and Langerhans. The cells that are found in abundance are the keratinocytes. These are the cells that go through keratinisation which is a process that deposits keratin in the epithelial cells. The production of melanin in our epidermis is covered by melanocytes. Our sensory neurons in the skin are the responsibility of merkel cells. And the cells that manage the immune reactions are the langerhans. Along with these cells are sub layers of the epidermis which include:

Dermis: Our dermis is what shields our bodies from daily stresses and strains. The dermis is the inner layer of our skin. A network membrane connects the dermis to the epidermis.
Functions of the Cutaneous Membrane

The main job of the cutaneous membrane is protection. It can do this in many ways, such as protecting us from physical injuries, protecting against the loss of moisture and water, and guarding against other microorganisms. A vital part of the cutaneous membrane’s job is to prevent the growth of microorganisms and balance our pH. Maintaining the body’s immunity is another duty of this membrane via the langerhan cells found in the epidermis.

Ridding our body of waste materials through sweat is yet another important function, along with riding the skin of any dead cells. Balancing and maintaining our body’s temperature also falls under the care of the cutaneous membrane.

Another necessary function relates to sensation that the skin feels. Sensations of pressure and touch are achieved through certain cells found in the dermis.

Our skin is also responsible for absorbing the much needed elements of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, etc. It controls the synthesis of Vitamin D.

Our skin prevents the loss of fluids in our body and can store water as well. 10% of our body’s blood vessels are found in the skin but only 2% of this is used for the skin to function.

Too much protein in urine

09 May, 19:36, by admin

When a person has an excess amount of protein in their urine the condition is referred to medically as proteinuria and albuminuria. Albumin is the protein that is predominantly detected in the urine, which is why proteinuria is also referred to as albuminuria. Our kidneys are the primary organs of our body that filters urine. The kidneys work to eliminate excess chemicals and waste material from the blood, while keeping the elements that are necessary for the body to function.

It has been observed that molecules of protein are usually too big to be able to pass through the glomeruli (singular glomerulus) of the kidneys. It can be a signal that the body’s filtering system is impaired if proteinuria has been experienced over a period of time. There are a number of illnesses which can have an adverse affect on the kidney’s filtering processes — that will bring about proteinuria. However, a small amount of protein present in the urine is not something to be alarmed.

Three classes of proteinuria exist; orthostatic proteinuria, persistent proteinuria, and transient or intermittent proteinuria.

Transient Proteinuria: Observing a temporary elevation of protein in the urine is referred to as transient proteinuria. Transient proteinuria is not generally the cause of an underlying kidney ailment. In most cases one will find that transient proteinuria settles of its own and is usually benign.

Orthostatic Proteinuria: Thin and tall adolescents as well as young adults mostly experience orthostatic. It has been observed that a larger amount of protein is discharged into the urine, when an affected person has been in an upright position.
Persistent Proteinuria: Certain medical conditions are usually the cause of persistent proteinuria. The conditions most commonly linked to persistent proteinuria are kidney, heart, and blood vessel diseases.

Symptoms of Proteinuria

In the earlier stages of proteinuria, symptoms may not appear at all. If there is a very high level of protein found in the urine, the following symptoms may be experienced.

  • Bubbly or foamy urine
  • Weight gain (as a result of fluid retention)
  • Swelling of the feet, ankles, hands, arms, abdomen, and face
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain or a burning sensation when urinating
  • Back pain
  • Tiredness and nausea
  • Diminished concentration

Fluid retention or ‘edema’ is what creates the symptoms of weight gain and swelling of the face, hands, and other areas of the body. The condition referred to as fluid retention (edema) is caused by fluid build up in the tissues of the body. Having a sizeable amount of protein, mainly albumin leaving the body, can cause these fluids to come free from the circulatory system. The fluids then start to become concentrated in the tissues.

Treatment for Proteinuria

When an individual has a high level of protein in the urine a doctor will check for infections. In cases where proteinuria is the cause of an infection, the patient will be prescribed a course of antibiotics. If there is no sign of an infection then additional diagnostic testing would be required, such as blood tests and kidney function testing, in order to determine what is the exact cause of proteinuria. Treatment will depend on the underlying condition. A person with diabetes, for example, who has developed proteinuria would be treated with medications that are appropriate for controlling blood sugar levels. It can also be advised that lifestyle and diet changes be made, as a way to manage this ailment along with its associated complications.